Centre for Theoretical and Mathematical Sciences (CETMS)
Most of the internationally renowned Universities have teaching and research in basic science as their major thrust area in addition to their dedication for technological advancements. ITER and SUM Hospital have been reputed institutions dedicated to Enginneering and Medical sciences since the establishment of Siksha 'O' Anusandhan in 2007. Guided by the far sighted vision of the President, Professor Manoj Ranjan Nayak, Siksha 'O' Anusandhan expanded its horizon encompassing research in Theoretical and Mathematical Sciences leading to the inception of CETMS since January, 2012. Although, in principle, any leading theoretical or mathematical branch of science comes within the purview of CETMS, the current emphasis and activities at the Centre are in two broader areas:
(1)High Energy Physics: Theory and Phenomenology including Astroparticle physics and Cosmology, and (2)Condensed Matter Physics: Biomaterials and Tissue Generation Laboratory(Experimental).
(1) High Energy Physics (Particle Physics):
Research is conducted in achieving solutions to existing puzzles, unsolved mysteries, or elucidation and alternate explanation on observed physical phenomena. Theoretical research in high energty physics goes hand-in-hand with experimental data.
Famous mathematicians and physicists have solved well posed problems unravelling mysteries of various interactions and the Universe. Newton’s observation on the commonplace event of “Falling Apple” led to the “Universal Law of Gravitation” and uniﬁed gravity. Maxwell’s observation on diverse phenomena of electricity and magnetism led to their uniﬁcation through the discovery of “Classical Electromagnetic Theory” and the “Electromagnetic Wave” in the 19th century. However, the simple experimental observation of “Black-Body Radiation” spectrum threw a formidable challenge to this classical electromagnetic theory that was successfully confronted by “Quantum Theory” of Max Planck. This in turn led to the discovery of “Photo-Electric Eﬀect ” and the “Photon” , the Bohr’s atomic model, de Broglie’s “Wave-particle duality”, Heisenberg’s and Schrodinger’s “Quantum Mechanics”, and Dirac’s “Quantum Field Theory” underlying all electromagnetic interactions in Physics, Chemistry, and Engineering. The negative result of “Michelson-Morley experiment” gave birth to “Special Theory of Relativity” leading to “General Relativity” of Albert Einstein. Gravity turned out to be the “Curvature of Space-Time Geometry” which has been testiﬁed quite often at the time of total solar eclipses. The simple equation “E = mc2” thought to be a pure mathematical and theoretical conjecture in the early part of 20th century has not only created havoc through atom bombs and hydrogen bombs, but has also come out as the origin of immense souce of nuclear energy for the mankind.
In Septeber,2015 “Advanced LIGO” experiments claimed to have veriﬁed not only the existence of “Gravitational Waves”, but also collision and merger events between two very massive black holes that had occured 1.3 billion years ago but the “Gravitational Wave” signal reached the earth on 14th Sept, 2015 at 09.50.45 GMT. This revolutionary discovery needs further interpretation and conﬁrmation.
Such are the examples of exciting development and realization of theoretial physics that depends constantly upon simple or sophisticated mathematical tools as well as experimental observations. Ever since the introduction of Nobel Prize, majority of the “Physics Nobel Prizes” have been awarded to theoretical or experimental particle physicists.
In High Energy Physics the CETMS attempts to understand and ﬁnd solutions to some out of hundreds and thousands of outstanding problems relating to the fundamental structure of matter and the Universe. Some examples are given below:
- Whether the standard model, universally followed as the theory of Particle Physics all over the world, should be the only theory below the Planck scale having a great grand desert?
- What is the origin of neutrino mass ? Why their masses are so small but mixings are so large ?
- What are the explanations to diﬀerent sets of neutrino oscillation data?
- Whether neutrinos are Dirac or Majorana fermions ?
- Why parity violation as observed in beta decay is exhibited by weak interaction alone leaving out three other fundamental interactions.?
- Why lepton ﬂavour violation is so small in the standard model? Is there unitarity violation ?
- Why anti-matter content of the universe is so small compared to its matter content even though both were created with equal proportions from the big-bang ?
- Are lepton and baryon numbers conserved ?
- Why dark energy dominates the universe and what is its origin ?
- What is the nature of dark matter?
- Is there a gravitational wave ? Has it been experimentally detected ? What could be a future source of gravitational wave?
- Are there indications of physical phenomena beyond the standard model at CERN LHC ?
- Are there deﬁnite indications of new gauge interactions by ongoing experiments
- What could be the result of current searches for neutrinoless double beta decay?
- Is proton decay veriﬁable by ongoing searches?
Model building with emphasis on neutrino physics, uniﬁcation, dark matter, and baryon asymmetry has been the focus of theoretical physics research since the last four years. Currently experiments at CERN LHC have shown excess of events not expected from the standard model which have been interpreted as productions of like-sign dileptons, WR boson, ZR boson, dijets, dibosons, and resonant production of di-photons through researches at the CETMS.
(2) Bio-materials and Tissue Regeneration Laboratory:
The Laboratory aims at the objective of implementing applications of physical and life sciences, and engineering to develop viable substitutes which could restore and maintain the function of human tissues, and which could also improve the quality of life of ill or insecured patients. Bio-materials also play key roles in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering as designable biophysical and biochemical environment that directs cellular behaviour as its function.
The research carried out focuses upon objectives which have tremendous importance for the human society:
- Developing methodologies for fabrication of metallic bio-materials.
- Using polymeric and ceramic bio-materials for designing scaﬀolds.
- Study of Titanium Dioxide Nanotube preparation
- Bone tissue and skin tissue engineering
- Guided bone regenaration
Over the short span of four years the Centre has come to lime-light with 25 journal publications in frontiers of high energy physics with high impact factors and with 18 publications in experimental branch of bio-materials and tissue regeneration in reputed international journals.
Currently there are three faculty members:
- Dr. M. K. Parida, Professor/Director, High Energy
- Dr. Tapash Ranjan Rautray, Asst. Prof. Condensed Matter Physics (Biomaterials and Tissue Generation Lab)
- Dr. Sudhanwa Patra, Asst. Prof., High Energy Physics
The Centre has been awarded with two major research projects by DST/SERB, Govt. of India to the tune of nearly Rs.55 lakhs. Nine Ph.D. scholars including an inspire fellow have been enrolled for their Ph. D. degree.
The Centre has also started Post Doctoral research programme since 2015.
A number of internationally renowned and eminent Physicists have visited CETMS and addressed Siksha 'O' Anusandhan community. The most recent one is the Siksha 'O' Anusandhan award ceremony, “Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Memorial Oration”, addressed by Professor Jogesh Chandra Pati, Stanford Univesity on his outstanding and fundamental contribution in Particle Physics.
In the current era, nanomaterials play an important role for production of sustainable energy, making our environment cleaner and help in reducing carbon footprint through various processes. Commensurate with the contemporary concerns for expanding the R&D activities in nano-science and nanotechnology, and harnessing the new frontiers of knowledge, the 'Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CNSNT)' was established in 2013 at Siksha 'O' Anusandhan, Bhubaneswar. The Department seeks to produce specific and technical manpower necessary for achieving the goal of trained Nanotechnologists. The vision of the department is to provide effective knowledge and skills in multidisciplinary sciences with emphasis upon nanotechnology that will carry out extensive R&D activities, leading to industry ready technical man power.
CNSNT currently considered as one of the budding research wings of Siksha 'O' Anusandhan, has addressed the challenges towards the development of efficient materials relating to energy, environment and sustainability. The department has a team of highly qualified 7 faculty members, experienced in teaching, and research. A group of 11 research scholars are pursuing research in the area of materials development and device fabrication for tapping solar energy for producing hydrogen energy, conversion of CO2 to fuels and control of environment pollution. The major thrust will be in the area of nanofabrication, guided by requirements of high degree of control at the nano meter scale. In addition, characterization of nanoscale materials in order to fully understand their unique properties is essential. Such structures will be integrated into macro-scale products through hierarchical integration processes. Side by side, powerful and versatile computational facilities are also essential for the proper understanding of the various physical phenomena. Highly efficient manufacturing processes are also envisaged, reducing material consumption and minimizing environment cost for new energy efficient products. Establishment of a viable technology transfer mechanism is therefore a prime concern.
The year 2015-2016 witnessed some important developments in the R&D at the level of nanotechnology research. Three projects such as “Design and development of porous graphene modified metal oxide photoanode for photoelectrochemical water splitting”; “Development of novel photoanodes by means of integrating transition metal ferrites into graphene analogous materials” and“Fabrication of LDH-GO-Clay hybrid integrated candles for improved purification of domestic water” have been sanctioned by DST, MNRE and DST-WTI respectively. We have published 20 research papers in high quality journals and filed 9 patents. We have conducted 2nd National workshop on “Development of Nanomaterials for Energy, Environment and Sustainability”during 9-10th May, 2016 where 150 participants attended the workshop and 15 invited/key note speakers have delivered high level talks.
The Multidisciplinary Research Cell established at the Siksha 'O' Anusandhan to promote research and consultancy has undertaken the following activities during the above referral period. Professor P.K. Dash, D.Sc., Ph.D., FNAE, LSMIEEEis heading the centre for research and consultancy and Professor P.K. Nanda (Electronics and Telecommunications) and Prof. P.K. Rout (Electrical and Electronics) are also attached to the Centre.The Centre has established three laboratories for undertaking research activities in the broad areas of Electrical and Computer Sciences.
Multi Disciplinary Research Cell (MDRC)
The Centre for Biotechnology is located at Kalinga Nagar, Ghatikia, Bhubaneswar, the capital city of Orissa. The Centre for Biotechnology is now running a 2 years post-graduate programme in Industrial Biotechnology. It is actively engaged in advanced research in the realm of plant, microbial and pharmaceutical biotechnology. Some of the research programmes are being funded by Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India, New Delhi. The centre is also imparting advanced training to graduates and post-graduates in different fields of Biotechnology. Linkage has been established with several reputed educational, research and industrial organizations. Highly qualified, proficient and dynamic faculty members further add to its strength.
Centre for Biotechnology (CBT)
Centre for Rural and Tribal Development (CRTD)
Centre of rural and tribal development, established in the year 2011, with the aim to improve the quality of life of rural and tribal community of Odisha, has taken efforts to identify social needs and to adopt new science and technology based solutions by social-engineering of youth through capacity building (providing training on new science and technology) on various means of bringing change in health, education and living conditions as well as alternate income generation avenues of the community.
Centre has been taking all efforts under the leadership of Center of Biotechnology of Siksha 'O' Anusandhan to mobilize the community for capacity building through awareness campaign, training and developing entrepreneurship skills on alternate income generating avenues like; production of value added products from powder, oleoresin and essential oil from turmeric, ginger and Kaempferia etc. Special initiatives are taken to establish market tie-up with functionaries of Govt. of Odisha for marketing of products, which leads towards sustainability of the present endeavor. ‘Chhatabar Grampanchayat’ consisting of 7 villages with around 10,000 people, majority of which are Scheduled Tribes, Scheduled Castes and Other Backward Classes was/has been taken as prototype to make the concept of livelihood generation operational.
Centre for Reproductive Health (CRH)
Inspired by the fact that more women die due to pregnancy related causes in India than anywhere else in the world and India faces the greatest challenge of population stabilization, the centre for reproductive health was launched to address reproductive issues. It focuses within the ambit of reproductive health that would enable a responsible, satisfying and safe sexual life with the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so. The state of Odisha is one among the high burden states to contribute to the country’s soaring number of Maternal Mortality Ratio and with comparatively high unmet need that accounts for around 15.5%, poses an uphill task for the state family welfare department.
The centre has been partnering with the state family welfare department and UN agencies to provide services to the community at large on reproductive issues.
Centre for Health Awareness (CHA)
Siksha O Anusandhan understands its responsibility towards the society by facilitating and promoting critical intellectual engagement with human condition and predicament. Human health is an important area where Siksha 'O' Anusandhan is extending its resources and capabilities to address socially relevant and challenging issues like that of head and neck cancers, HIV & AIDS etc to help its prevention, detection and rehabilitation.
The constituent institutions of Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan for different disciplines collectively aim to develop society in education, technology & health care at a large. With the coordinated and collaborative activities by various institutions / departments, integrated scientific and innovative services can be delivered to the people. An interdisciplinary research outcome will benefit the community in a better way. The emerging health issues can be better handled and resolved by a joint work by relevant departments.
Centre for Infectious Diseases (CID)
Infections are major cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world even to-day and more so in the developing countries like ours. The change in the life style has been associated with many emerging and re-emerging infections. They pose a definite threat to the society in the form of morbidity, increased hospital stay, increased cost of treatment, loss of man hours and increased suffering..Development of drug resistance amongst the agents has compounded the problems. Early detection, prompt treatment, elimination of the source of infection and effective methods of control of spread of these infectionsare essentially required..
The centre for infectious diseases attempts to address all the infection related issues under one roof and this centre in collaboration with the centre for health awareness will attempt tolimit the spread of infection.